View the most Frequently Asked Questions

Agentes de mercado
Geographical Distribution Natural Gas Distributors


Source: ERSE

Reception, storage and regasification (natural gas) terminal operators

Liquifeito Natural Gas reception, storage and regasification terminal operators are concessionaire entities of the receiving terminal, with responsibility for ensuring its operation and maintenance, as well as its storage and regasification capacity, under conditions safety, reliability and quality of service.

Energy Producers

In Portugal there are only producers of electricity; natural gas is, in its entirety, acquired externally.

Thus, there are:

Ordinary producers: are entities holding electricity production licenses whose activity is not covered by a special legal regime, with incentives for the use of endogenous and renewable resources or for the combined production of heat and electricity (cogeneration).

Producers under special regime: they are entities holding electricity production licenses, granted under specific legal regimes, in the framework of the adoption of policies to encourage the production of electricity through the use of renewable resources or of technologies of combined heat production and electricity (cogeneration).

Transmission system operators

Transmission system operator: it is the concession entity of the National Transmission Network (RNT). In addition to the transportation of electricity, it has a main role as Global System Manager.

Distribution network operators


Distribution Network Operators (ORD) are the concessionaires of the National Distribution Network (RND) or Low Voltage Networks, which carry out the electricity distribution activity.


You can consult the information on these entities on ERSE website.

Natural gas

Distribution Network Operators (ORDs) are concessionaires or licensees of public service distribution of the National Natural Gas Distribution Network (RNDGN), entity responsible for the operation, maintenance and development of the distribution network, under conditions of safety, reliability quality of service in a specific geographical area.


You can consult the information on these entities on ERSE website.


ADENE – Agência para a Energia is the entity in charge of carrying our the activity of Energy Supplier Switching Operator (OLMC).

The OLMC has the task of ensuring that the switching process of electricity and natural gas supplier by the final consumer is carried out in a fast way, based on simple, transparent, standardized and dematerialized rules and procedures, as well as ensuring the realization of the right to consumer information.

Further information on OLMC activity can be found in Decree Law 38/2017, dated March 31.

Last Resort Suppliers

Last Resort Suppliers (CUR) are licensed commercial entities responsible for supplying electricity and/or natural gas, through the application of tariffs defined by the Energy Services Regulatory Authority (ERSE).


CURs can supply electricity and/or natural gas to:

  • Final consumers with contracts, as long as the regulated tariffs or transitional tariffs legally envisaged by ERSE apply;
  • Economically vulnerable consumers;
  • Consumers whose market marketer has been prevented from exercising the activity;
  • Consumers located where there is no offer by traders of electricity or natural gas under a market regime.

See the list of electricity and natural gas CUR operating in the mainland Portugal market.


For more information of this suppliers, see Decree-Law no. 29/2006, February 15, and Decree-Law no. 172/2006, August 23, as amended by Decree-Law no. 215-A/2012 and Decree-Law no. 215-B/2012 of October 8, Decree-Law no. 30/2006, of February 15, and Decree-Law no. 140/2006, of July 26, and the Commercial Relations Regulation published by ERSE.

Energy Suppliers

The electricity and natural gas suppliers are the entities that sell electricity and/or natural gas to the final consumer, and the selling price is determined by each supplier operating in the Mainland Portugal market.

With the liberalization of electricity and natural gas market, the final consumer can choose the supplier that best suits his needs, and can change as many times as he wants, as long as this change is not simultaneous with another switching process.

Consult the list of energy suppliers operating in the domestic market of Continental Portugal.

What is the Electronic Complaint Book?

The Electronic Complaints Book is a digital platform integrated in the “SIMPLEX + 2016” program and involves the Consumer Directorate-General and regulators of the various sectors.

On this platform, you can submit your complaints and/or request information about electricity and natural gas services, as well as other essential public services (water, waste, electronic communications and postal services).

What are the rights and obligations of energy consumers?

Consumer rights are provided for in Article 60 of the Portuguese Constitution and in the Consumer Protection Law, Law no. 24/96, of July 31, as amended by Decree-Law no. 67/2003, of 8 April, corresponding to the following rights:



  • Right to the Quality of Goods and Services
  • Right to Health Protection and Physical Safety
  • Right to Training and Education for Consumption
  • Right to Information
  • Right to the Protection of Economic Interests
  • Right to the Prevention and Reparation of Losses
  • Right to Legal Protection and Affordable and Prompt Justice
  • Right to Participation and Representation



  • Critical Consciousness Duty
  • Obligation to Compliance with Contractual Obligations
  • Duty to Collaborate with Network Operators in Enforcement of Legal Provisions
  • Duty of Environmental Awareness and Efficient Consumption

In addition to the aforementioned rights and duties, the Business Relations Regulation of the Electricity Sector must also be taken into account; the Regulation of the Quality of the Service of the Electric Sector and the Regulation of the Electric Sector.

What to do in case of consumer litigation?

In the event of a consumer dispute, defined in accordance with the provisions of Law no. 144/2015, of September 8, the consumer may resort to an Alternative Dispute Resolution Body with jurisdiction in the place of his domicile or, in in case of non-existence, may alternatively use the National Center for Consumer Conflict Information and Arbitration (CNIACC).
This information does not exempt the consultation of Law No 144/2015 of 8 September and Regulation (EU) No 524/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013.


In case of consumer litigation what alternative dispute resolution entities can the consumer appeal to?


  • CNIACC – National Center for Consumer Conflict Information and Arbitration
  • CIAB – Consumer Information, Mediation and Arbitration Center / Consumer Arbitration Court – Braga and Viana do Castelo
  • CACCVA – Arbitration Center for Consumer Conflicts of Vale do Ave / Arbitral Tribunal
  • CICAP – Center of Information, Consumption and Arbitration of Porto
  • CACCDC – Center for Arbitration of Consumer Conflicts of the District of Coimbra
  • CACCL – Lisbon Consumer Conflict Arbitration Center
  • CIMAAL – Consumer Information, Mediation and Arbitration Center of the Algarve
  • ERSE – Energy Services Regulatory Authority
  • More information on Consumer Portal
What meter readings should I enter in the “PME Simulator”?

The PME simulator requires the user to enter at least two meter readings.

In order for the simulator to present annual consumption results adjusted to the user’s consumption, you should enter the invoice data based on the meter readings sent by the consumer to the energy supplier, not the invoice data based on “estimated” meter readings.

Thus, you should enter the data of at least one invoice referring to one winter month (example: January) and another referring to one summer month (example: June).

The meter readings to be introduced may not be longer than one year between the first reading entered and the last reading entered.

Simple, bi-hour, three-hour and four-hour tariff
  1. At the simple tariff the price of electricity is the same at all hours of the day.
  2. In the bi-hourly tariff the price of electricity is reduced in the night or at the weekend and higher in the remaining periods.
  3. In the three-hour tariff the price of electricity is reduced in the night or at the weekend and higher in the remaining periods.
  4. In the tetra-hourly rate the electricity price is lower in the night or weekend periods and higher in the remaining periods.
Green tariff and indexed tariff

In a fixed tariff, practiced by the majority of the energy supplier, a fixed value is established for the applicable tariff during a defined period (normally one year). These tariffs have the advantage of greater predictability in the energy bill, since in these cases the invoice value varies only according to the energy consumption.

In an indexed tariff, the value of the energy tariff is indexed to the daily market price of electricity (OMIE), which has an hourly variation. Thus, in this type of tariffs, the consumer sees reflected in his bill the changes in the price of electricity, with a commercial margin (spread) for the provision of the service of energy supply, defined by the supplier.

In addition, there are suppliers who, in order to reduce the risk associated with the indexed tariff, define tariffs based on the price of the daily electricity market, establishing, however, a maximum price from which the energy tariff no longer increase. In such a scenario, the client has a more limited exposure to variations in the price of energy in OMIE.

What is a green tariff?

The green tariff allows consumers to guarantee that a quantity of energy from 100% renewable sources equivalent to their annual consumption will be marketed.

Your supplier should let you know what sources are included of your supply and if it is renewable. If you have this type of tariff, you can ask your supplier for a certificate with proves that the amount of renewable energy they buy is at least as much as the amount they are selling to customers with green tariff.

What should I do if I want to increase my hired power?

To increase the standing charge, you must know what the licensed power of your installation and what power required to the network for its installation when it is designed. If you do not know, you should contact your dealer or ORD to know this information.
If you want to increase to a power less than or equal to the certified installation, you should ask for this increase directly and without complications to your current marketer.

In case you want to increase to a power higher than the certified power, you should apply for certification to the new power to a competent entity and only after being certified ask the increase to your current supplier.

What is a standing charge?

The standing charge corresponds to the maximum amount of electricity your dwelling can receive. In this way, this factor will limit the number of electrical equipment that can be connected simultaneously since the sum of the powers of the connected equipment can not exceed the standing power.

You can read more about this in our standing power article.

Where can I find CPE?

CPE can be found on any electricity bill, regardless of the supplier with whom you have contracted the delivery service. Alternatively, if you do not have an invoice, you may request, that information from your electricity distributor network operator in the region to which the address of the location to be supplied belongs.
In most cases, this is EDP Distribuição, so you should contact the Technical Assistance Line 808 100 100 and indicate the serial number of the meter that is present in your electric meter.

What is CPE?

The Delivery Point Code (CPE) in its structure consists of 20 digits which is composed of 4 distinct parts:


1. Two characters corresponding to the national identification “PT”;

2. Four numeric characters representing the identifier of the Distribution Network Operator that can be:


      0001       Rede Eléctrica Nacional, S.A.

      0002       EDP Distribuição

      0003       A CELER, C.R.L. – Cooperativa Electrificação de Rebordosa

      0004       A Eléctrica Moreira de Cónegos

      0005       Casa do Povo de Valongo do Vouga

      0006       Cooperativa de Electrificação A Lord, CRL

      0007       Cooperativa Eléctrica de S. Simão de Novais, C.R.L.

      0008       Cooperativa Eléctrica de Vale d’ Este

      0009       Cooperativa Eléctrica de Vilarinho

      0010       Cooperativa Eléctrica do Loureiro, CRL

      0011       COOPRORIZ – Cooperativa de Abastecimento de Energia Eléctrica, CRL

      0012       Junta de Freguesia de Cortes de Meio


3. Twelve numeric characters of Local Identification Code;

4. Two letters of Check digit.


The Identifier Code of the Network Operator is assigned by REN, in the quality of the Transport Network.

In the same way that the Citizen Card identifies a person, CPE allows you to identify an installation regardless of its use or ownership.

Who is my current electricity supplier?

If you do not know who is your energy supplier, you should contact your distribution network operator.

If your distribution network operator is EDP Distribuição, you should use the technical support line 808 100 100, available on weekdays from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m.

Gás Natural
Where can I find CUI?

It can be found on any gas bill, regardless of the supplier with whom you have contracted the natural gas supply service.

Alternatively, if you do not have an invoice, you can contact the gas distributor network operator in the region that owns the address of the place to be supplied (which is not your energy supplier) and request this information as identification as the holder.

What is CUI?

The Universal Installation Code (CUI) consists of 20 characters that are composed of 4 different parts:


1. Two characters corresponding to the national identification “PT”;

2. Four numeric characters representing the identifier of the Distribution Network Operator that can be:


      1601 – Portgás

      1602 – Lusitaniagás

      1603 – Beiragás

      1604 – Tagusgás

      1605 – Lisboagás

      1606 – Setgás

      1701 – Sonorgás

      1702 –  Durienegás

      1703 – Dianagás

      1704 – Paxgás

      1705 – Mediagás


3. Twelve numeric characters of Local Identification Code;

4. Two letters of Check digit.


In the same way that the Citizen Card identifies a person, it allows to identify a natural gas installation or infrastructure, regardless of its use or ownership.


If a new natural gas connection is made, it will be necessary to request a new CUI for this installation.

Who is my current natural gas supplier?

If you do not know who is your energy supplier, you should contact your distribution network operator.
You can find out the contacts of natural gas distribution network operators on the ERSE portal.

Mercados regulado e livre
What is the regulated market?

Regulated market and free market

What are transitory tariffs?

In order for consumers to adapt gradually, the publication of transitory tariffs approved by ERSE remains. These tariffs incorporate a price increase factor, in order to induce the passage of customers to the free market. Transitional tariffs can be revised quarterly, depending on market conditions.
Transitional tariffs are exclusively applicable by suppliers of last resort.
In the event that the transitional period is terminated in advance for a given consumer segment (ie, more than 90% of these consumers are already on the free market), the transitional tariff will cease to exist for that segment.

Until when do I have to switch?

Until the end of 2020, is the transition period for liberalized market.

During this time, while you remaining on the regulated market, it will remain connected to its current supplier, whose price is fixed by ERSE through the transitory tariff, subject to a quarterly review.

Does switching from the regulated market to the liberalized market have costs?

The energy supplier switching process has no cost and can be done at any time.

Only the tariff will change, according to the supplier of your choice.

Changing contracts and other procedures will have no associated cost.

Is there a difference in the energy supply of the liberalized market?

No, it’s exactly the same. Switching energy supplier is only a transfer of commercial relation, so in the process of supplier change it will not change any equipment or characteristics of the installation of consumption (except if this is the intention of the consumer).

Is it necessary to sign a contract?

If you sign up by phone or through the supplier’s website, you do not have to sign a contract. After the activation date, you will receive a letter or an e-mail informing you that the contract is already in force. The letter will be accompanied by the general and particular conditions of your contract. From that moment, the consumer has a period of 14 days to cancel the given instruction and cancel the contract. It is not imperative that you return the contract if it has been signed. 14 days after the date of receipt of the conditions, and if you do not wish to cancel the contract, the delivery will be normal.

If you switch of supplier at a store, you must sign the contract.

Mudança de comercializador
What changes may be necessary?

It may be necessary to change your meter reading if there is a change in the consumption profile (for example, switching from a simple tariff when the client pay the energy price equal in all hours, or to a two-tariff when the client pay in two different energy prices according to the hours of energy usage, or performing an extraordinary meter reading). These changes are done by the Distribution Network Operator, complying with deadlines and rules defined by ERSE.
In the event of a need to perform at the place of consumption (for example, changes in meter reading or extraordinary reading), the switching supplier deadlines depend on the scheduling and execution of the interventions requested by the distribution system operator, whose deadlines and rules are also defined by ERSE.

What reasons can object my switching supplier process?

The preventive situations are defined by ERSE:


  • Insufficient or invalid installation identification;
  • Requests overlay switching supplier;
  • Power indicated not standardized or higher than the requested or licensed power;
  • Customer data not matched with registered;
  • Existence of fraud processes;
  • Amounts owed to the supplier of last resort, which has not been contested before the courts or authorities responsible for extrajudicial dispute resolution.

Customers may also be prevented from contracting the supply with a supplier if there are amounts owed to the last resort supplier (CUR), which have not been challenged before courts or entities with the power to resolve judicial conflicts.

Do I need to change my energy meter?

No. It will only be necessary to replace the meter in case there is a change in your consumption profile, which technically determines the need to replace it.

How to resolve a contract?

In order to resolve the contract for the supply of electricity and/or natural gas, you must send the communication by registered letter with acknowledgment of receipt, at least 30 days before the effective date.
In the case of business customers with consumption of more than 1 GWh of Natural Gas, the notice deadline can not be less than 60 days.

What is the typical duration of a energy supplier switching process?

The switching process must be completed within 20 days, if you do not need any operations in the local of consumption (such as a technical intervention).

How long will the new tariff take effect?

After you signing the contract, it will be submitted to a validation by the switching platform (GPMC).

It is a fast process that aims to verify technical and commercial data regarding your house. Once the process is validated, the Customer is informed of the day from which the service is active with the new supplier. From that date, you will benefits of the contracted plan.

Is it necessary to inspect the house and gas equipment when changing the supplier?

According to paragraph 3 of article 23 of  DL n.º 97/2017, of 10 August, it is not necessary to carry out any inspection of the installation of equipment as long as you have an active natural gas contract and the contract holder remains.
In the case of properties that do not have a natural gas supply contract, it is always necessary to inspect the installation and the gas equipment.

How is the switching process?

After signing the new contract, the new supplier requests the change in the switching platform (GPMC), within approximately 5 working days.

The supplier switching process will take approximately 15 days, for the beginning of the term of your contract with the new supplier.

At that moment a reading of your electric meter is sent by the Distribution Network Operator, through the GPMC, used by the former supplier to record the resolved agreement and issue the last invoice. This is also used by the new supplier to start the new contract.

Within 60 days, you will receive the first invoice from your new energy supplier. In the case of a dual service (electricity and natural gas) this term may extend up to 75 days.

Does my contract have exit fee?

When you switch to a new tariff, you are entering into a contract with a supplier with specific clauses according to the intended service. In most situations of energy supply in normal low voltage (common for domestic consumers), the contracts do not have loyalty period.

However, if a loyalty period is foreseen in your current contract and if you want to switch to a new supplier, you will have to compensate your current supplier to resolve the agreement.

Loyalty is usually associated with the provision of additional services, and the associated costs must be well defined in the contract. If you can not find your contract, check that you have the standard contract form, always available from the suppliers, where is all the information regarding to the tariff.

How much does the change of energy supplier cost?

The switching of energy supplier does not have any costs for the consumer.

The new supplier will apply for the switching, being a free process for all consumers.

How many times can I change the energy supplier?

There is no limit on the number of times you can change energy supplier. It should only take into account the possibility of existing in its current supply agreement a payment clause of possible penalty for ending of the contract, e.g., there are some energy suppliers who may demand payment of compensation for the energy that they planned to provide during the contract of 12 months.

What are the mandatory taxes on a natural gas bill?
  • Subsoil Occupancy Rate (TOS) – corresponds to the utilization and utilization rate of the municipal public and private domain. It is defined by each municipality.
    It is composed of a variable term, applied to the consumption of natural gas (kWh) and a fixed term applied over the number of days of the billing period.
  • Special Tax on Natural Gas Fuel (IEC) – is included in the sub-category of tax on oil and energy producers (ISP) paid to the state.
What are the mandatory taxes on an electricity bill?

The terms power and energy consumption are added mandatory taxes that are applied by suppliers through the invoices issued to their customers.
There are:

  • Exploration Fee General Direction of Energy and Geology (DGEG) – corresponds to the rate of utilization and exploitation of the electrical installations that is paid to the state. This rate has a fixed value and is defined by the DGEG;
  • Special Tax on Electricity Consumption (IEC) – is included in the subcategory of tax on oil and energy producers (ISP), created in 2012 and paid to the state. The flat rate is 0.001 per kWh of billed energy.
  • The Audiovisual Contribution (CAV) – according to Law no. 30/2003, of August 22, corresponds to the financing of the public service of broadcasting and television, being delivered by the marketers to Rádio e Televisão de Portugal SGPS, SA The monthly fixed amount is € 2.85 + VAT (6%) and should be paid 12 times a year to a consumer.
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